Friday, July 6, 2012

John Adams on Macedonia and its history

Dedicated to Bratot (Kajgana Forum), The LION Will ROAR (MT Forum), MINA, Sitel TV, NM Newspaper, M. Spark.

John Adams (1735-1826) was the second President on the United States (1797-1801). He was also lawyer, statesman, diplomat, political theorist, and a leading champion of independence in 1776. Adams is one of the seven "fathers" of the USA (Founding Fathers of the United States of America). Upon his initiative and signature is adopted the worthiest American document, “The Declaration of Independence” as well as the Constitution of the USA.

From 1785 to 1788 he was minister to the Court of St. James's, returning to be elected as First Vice President under George Washington (First President of USA).

During the Revolutionary War, in the year 1783 John Adams served the young American state as its "Commissioner to France" and "Minister Plenipotentiary to Holland". He was also one of the "Commissioners for negotiating the Treaty of Peace" (together with Benjamin Franklin and John Marshall). This treaty was signed after the War of Independece from the UK.

In the beginning of the XIX-th century was printed all of his, as well as the correspondence of the other American diplomats and statesmen from this time "The Diplomatic Correspondence of the American Revolution". This publication is tidily archived in a multi-volume.



Modern FYROM propaganda uses a passage of one of his letters from this correspondence between John Adams and Robert Livingston (First Secretary of the United States, the function presently executed by Madame Hillary Rodham Clinton). In this letter from July 14, 1783 we can read the following:
“The project of setting at liberty the whole country of ancient Greece, Macedonia, and Illyricum, and erecting independent Republics in those famous seats, however splendid it may appear in speculation, is not likely to be seriously entertained by the two Empires (meaning Austria and Russia), because it is impracticable. The Greeks of this day, although they are said to have imagination and ingenuity, are corrupted in their morals to such a degree, as to be a faithless, perfidious race, destitute of courage, as well as of those principles of honor and virtue, without which nations can have no confidence in one another, nor be trusted by others.” (Ibid., pg. 86)
Slavomacedonian claims on this passage are:

1- John Adams was advocate for erecting three new independent republics on the European territory of the Ottoman Empire: Greece, Macedonia and Illyricum.
2- Macedonia is mentioned separately from Greece, and with that, Macedonia is not part from Greece.


John Adams passage of the original letter from July 14th, 1783

Answers on their manipulations:

1- Yes, Adams was advocate for erecting new independent republics, as a result of Ottoman terror over the Balkan Christian population. But his conception was to be created new republics on former ancient areas of Greece, Macedonia and Illyricum, not to create three separate republics with names Greece, Macedonia or Illyricum.

This would be corroborated with excerpt from his letter, where before the noun "Greece" is written adjective "ancient". By using of word "ancient", Adams wants to make distinction between ancient and modern Greece (especially Mora Elayet). It is the same with Macedonia and Illyricum. Same as Greece, are mentioned as Roman provinces. After the conquest of the Balkans, ancient Romans founded two propraetorial provinces: Illyricum (167 BC) and Macedonia (146 BC).

At first, within the Roman province of Macedonia were ancient territories of Boeotia, Southern Epirus, Thessaly, Lower Macedonia, Attica, Peloponnese (present-day Greece), Upper Macedonia and Paeonia (present-day northern Greece and southern FYROM), Northern Epirus and Southern Illyria (present-day Albania).

The province of Macedonia within the Roman Empire, ca. 117 AD.

After the defeat of Andriscus of Macedon (last Ancient King of Macedon) from Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus in 148 BC, region of Macedonia was divided into four client republics. After that in 27 BC, with establishment of the principate territories of Attica and Peloponnese were split off from Macedonia, and was founded new senatorial propaetrorial province named as Achaea. Province of Achaea included all Greece south of Thessaly, Macedonia and Epirus. It proves that separation, isn't made by ethnic dimension (because if Greek inhabitants of Macedonia and Epirus, are questionable for Slavomacedonians and Albanians, then the case with Thessaly isn't such). Also at 67 AD, whole Epirus (Epirus vetus and Epirus nova) has become imperial procuratorial province separated from Macedonia. Thessaly remained as part of Macedonia.

Macedonia (Roman province) in 400 AD, after the subtraction of Epirus and Achaea.

Roman province of Illyricum contained territories of present-day northern Albania, Montenegro, parts of western Serbia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, and some part of Slovenia. If Adams in his letter emphasized Illyricum as a future free republic from Ottoman Empire, he will not mention Albania as a Ottoman province, that must be conquered and divided between Austria and Russia, in his following passage:
“The project of conquering the Provinces of Albania, Romelia, Wallachia, Moldavia, and Little Tartary, from the Turks, and dividing them between the two Empires, may be more probable; but the Turks, in Asia and Europe together, are very powerful, and, if thoroughly awakened, might make a great resistance ; so that it is most probable, the two Imperial Courts would be content, if they could obtain by negotiation, or by arms, the free navigation of the Danube, Black Sea, and Archipelago (meaning the Aegean). This freedom alone would produce a great revolution in the commerce of Europe.” (Ibid., pg. 86-87)
This is another proof that Adams wanted to be founded new republics (democratical) on the territories of the former ancient regions Greece, Macedonia and Illyricum. But, not to be founded new republics with names Greece, Macedonia and Illyricum, as FYROM propaganda claims.

In the year (1783), when this letter is written, on the territories of ancient Greece, Macedonia and Illyricum, were located Ottoman provinces called Eyalets. These provinces were: Rumelia Eyalet (present-day Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, central and northern Greece, FYROM and European Turkey), Morea Eyalet (present-day Greece, Attica and Peloponnesus), Bosnia Eyalet (present-day Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina) and Crete Eyalet (present-day most southern island of Greece). There was no Eyalets (provinces) with name Greece, Macedonia or Illyricum.


Scan of the NM Newspaper from FYROM, published at 12.4.2012.

2. Separate mentions of Macedonia from Greece, Adams doesn't make at the time in which he live. This political division (not ethnogeographic), between Macedonia and Greece, was made by the Romans. John Adams as a good connoisseur of history, has used this separately mention to mark a specific territories on the Balkan.

As a good politican theorist and historian, John Adams had the honor to wrote Massachusetts Constitution in 1780. His knowledge of the Macedonian history is great. This is confirmed in his biography with his works, in which he writes about famous Macedonian history, great Macedonian generals and their strategies, and for their views of the world. From his excerpts in following passages, can be seen in which ethnic group puts Macedonians:



Letters to John Taylor, of Caroline, Virginia, in reply to his strictures on some parts of the defence of the American Constitutions. J.A.


["The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States", Vol. VI. Boston 1851, pg. 514]

Conclusion: On the question, were the democrats ever been promoters of science, arts and literature, John Adams puts Alexander and Ptolemies, as a Macedonian Greeks, together with other Greeks, Pericles and Themistocles, who are Athenian Greeks. That this emphasis is made by ethnic division, testifies next sentence. In this sentences, as a non-democrats are mentioned Augustus, Scipio and Laelius who were ancient Romans.

Letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson. Quincy, 4 October, 1813.


["The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States", Vol. X. Boston 1856, pg. 77]

Conclusion: Alexander and Ptolemy are mentioned as examples for understanding between Jews and Greeks.

John Adams for Boston Gazette - series of papers signed as Novanglus, written in 1774.


["The Works of John Adams, Second President of the United States", Vol. IV. Boston 1865, pg. 14]

Conclusion: Alexander and his father Philip, are mentioned as an example for Greece, as a broader ethnic term of Macedonia, which was a geographical term. As a Roman, Caesar is mentioned for Rome, as a Spanish, Charles V is mentioned for Spain, as a French Louis XII is mentioned for France. With this we can conclude that according to Adams, ancient Macedonians were part of the ancient Hellenic world.

Author: M.P.

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